International Archive of Applied Science & Technology
[A Quarterly Peer Reviewed International Journal of Applied Sciences]
[Published By: Society of Education, India]

Online ISSN 2277-1565   Print ISSN 0976-4828 


IAAST Volume 5 [1] March 2014



1.      Synthesis and Study the Effect of H2O/TEOS ratio of the Silica xerogel  by Sol- Gel method

Seenaa Ibrahem , Harith Ibrahem

Department of Physics , College of Science, University of Baghdad, Iraq

ABSTRACT: In this research, preparation  of silica xerogel  by sol-gel method using precursor solutions were made by mixing tetraethylorthosilicate (TEOS), ethanol , water  and HCL . The sample prepared  by mixing TEOS,ethonal,water,and HCL ,TEOS and ethonal were mixing and stirred for 10 min at room temp.then 0.1 MHCL was gradually added to the solution until a water to TEOS molar ratio of R=2,R=5. The silica xerogel  characterized using  infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), thermal gravimetric analysis(TGA),and micro hardness .The results shows that, FTIR spectroscopy  of silica xerogel two region, one region  the band Si-O-Si at 450-800 cm-1and the two region O-H at 1500-3600cm-1 .TGA of silica xerogel Aera under the curve represents the amount of energy needed to get ride of the water,in the case R=5 the amount of water absorbed more would need more energy to be evaporating . Microhardness, Vickers hardness (Hv) the sample R= 5 has been given higher hardness values of R=2 and the horizontal given hardness higher than the vertical position.

Keywords: silica xerogel,TEOS,sol-gel,FTIR,TGA,microhardness

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2.      Removal of Hexavalent Chromium from Aqueous Solution using Pre-treated Bio-Sorbent

Hunge S.S.1 , Rahangdale P.K2., Lanjewar M.R3.
Chintamani College of Science, Pombhurna ( Gondwana University) India
Bhawabhuti College ,Amgaon (Nagpur University) India 441902
PGTD of Chemistry, RTM Nagpur University, Nagpur-440033(India)

ABSTRACT: Pollution of water due to the presence of certain heavy metals ions is a severe socio-environmental problems caused by the discharge of industrial waste water. In view of their toxicity, non-biodegradability and persistent nature their removal becomes an absolute necessity.  Hexavalent chromium metal ion is the major pollutants in the environment and is frequently present in waste water from the various industrial units. Several conventional physical and chemical treatment techniques are reported in the literature for the removal of hexavalent chromium. However these processes are not only expensive and energy intensive, but also lead to the production of harmful by products. In the present study, activated carbon derived from the bark of Butea monosperma was used as a potential sorbent after coating it with chitosan, a deacetylated derivative from chitin for removal of hexavalent chromium from aqueous solution was investigated. The batch experiment was carried out to investigate the effect of significant process parameters such as effect of pH, contact time, adsorbent dosage and initial Cr (VI) ion concentration. The maximum adsorption of Cr(VI) on biosorbent was found at pH value of 3. The removal of hexavalent chromium from aqueous solution increases with increase in contact time. Further an increase in adsorbent dose, there is increase of removal of Cr (VI) up to 96 %. The increase in initial concentration of Cr (VI) led to decrease in the percentage of removal of Cr(VI) . This investigation verifies that pre-treated bio-sorbent as a valuable material for removal of hexavalent chromium from aqueous solution.

Keywords: Adsorption, Butea monosperma bark (BMB), Chitosan, Hexavalent chromium, Biosorbent,

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3.      Disaster Risk Reduction Management in the City of Mandaluyong: Focus on Earthquake Impact Reduction


Graduate School, Rizal Technological University

Mandaluyong City, Philippines

ABSTRACT: Disaster is an occurrence focused in space, in which a society or one of its subdivisions undergoes physical destruction and social disruptions, such that all or some essential functions of the society or subdivision are impaired. The study was undertaken to assess the current state of prepapredness of the City of Mandaluyong in the event of a major earthquake. Purposive sampling was used in selecting the respondents, 8 city heads and 21 barangay chairmen/representatives from the City. Descriptive survey research method and personal interview were utilized. The modified instrument used to gather data was drawn from the MMEIRS “Disaster Mitigation Capability Assessment Matrix”. Results of the study reveal that the City of Mandaluyong is prepared for a major earthquake. Six, out of the eight (8) items of preparedness, were perceived to be the strengths namely: legal framework, vulnerability assessment, DRRM plans, institutional/organizational structures, community awareness, and disaster response. Results show that preparedness of the City of Mandaluyong is weak in terms of private-public partnership and recovery/rehabilitation. Statistical analysis shows no significant difference in the groups’ perception on legal framework, DRRM plans, and disaster response. The study concludes that although a legal framework was provided for, the existing mandate is only an executive order issued by the mayor, and not an ordinance enacted by the City Council. Also, the reluctance of the private sector to participate in the research effort may be an indicative of a general inclination not to disclose any information. Thus, the study recommends that the city government should pass and ordinance complying with RA 10121. Public-Private Sector partnership can be strengthened. Further research on DRRM not limited to the likehood of an earthquake may be conducted, inviting the invovement of private business organization.

Key words: Disaster Risk Reduction Management (DRRM), Earthquake, and Impact Reduction

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4.      RP-HPLC Method for Simultaneous Determination of Amlodipine Beylate and Atorvastatin Calcium: Application to Commercially available drug products.

Milind Ubale

1P.G.Dept. of Chemistry, Vasantrao Naik Mahavidyalaya, Aurangabad. (India)

ABSTRACT: A Reverse phase method has been developed for the quantitative estimation of Amlodipine Besylate and Atorvastatin Calcium in Tablets. The Quantification was carried out using RP stainless steel column ODS C18 250 x 4.6 x 5 L1 packing in Isocratic mode with mobile phase containing 0.03 M Potassium buffer: Acetonitrile in the ratio of 30:70, pH 2.5 adjusted with ortho-phosphoric acid. Solution degassed before use, Flow rate was maintained at 1.0 ml/minute and the detection wavelength set at 237 nm.

The linearity was found to be in the range of 16-22 μg/ml for Atorvastatin Calcium and 4 to 6 μg/ml for Amlodipine Besylate .The proposed method found to be simple, precise, accurate, and reproducible for the estimation of Amlodipine Besylate and Atorvastatin Calcium.

Key words: - Atorvastatin Calcium, Amlodipine Besylate, Method Development, High Performance Liquid Chromatography.

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Kiran Mishra

Department of Applied Science

Universal Instt.of Engg. &Tech.,Lalau, Mohali, Punjab

ABSTRACT: The proposed research program is continuation of the research work, which has been carried out on the synthesis and biological studies of some isatin (indole 2,3-diones). In this connection fifty-seven derivatives were prepared.The substitution was made at position such as 1 and 3. The isatin derivatives (MP VA-F) were prepared by the substituted of different aldehydes by reacting the mixture of (3Z)-3-[(4-hydrazinylphenyl)imino]-1,3-dihydro-2H-indol-2-one with the presence of with glacial acetic acid. Isatin derivatives with acid anhydride were prepared and isatin derivatives were also reacted with isatin having 85% yield.All these new compounds have been screened for their antimicrobial activity against test organism.

Keyword: isatin, Antimicrobial Activity, p-chloro aniline and hydrazine hydrate.

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Kiran Mishra

Universal Instt.of Engg.&Tech, Lalru,Mohali (Pb.)

ABSTRACT: The objective of present research work is to synthesis of a number of 1, 3, 4-oxadiazole derivatives for antifungal activity.  Some of the synthesized compounds showed significant antifungal activity. KM-8 compound exhibited potent activity (MIC=12.5 μg/ml). The synthesized derivatives were characterized by means of TLC, IR, and 1HNMR spectral analysis for their structural confirmation. The derivatives which showed better antifungal activity may serve as leads for further optimization.

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7.      Biological Activities of Some New Environmentally Safe2-Aminobenzothiazole Complexes of Copper (II) Derived Under Microwave Irradiation

Neha Mathur, Imran Ahmad, Ashok Kasana, Sonlata Bargotya, Biplab Manna
Department of Chemistry, Govt. P.G. College, Dausa (Rajasthan) - 303303
Department of Chemistry, Kuchaman College, Kuchaman City, Rajasthan


Abstract:Chemistry of present era aims to build a pollution free environment. For the same, it targets to create some alternatives which are eco-friendly and nature loving. Present research work is a step towards achieving such alternatives. For this, complexes copper (II) palmitate with 2-amino-6-chlorobenzothiazole and 2-amino-6-methylbenzothiazole were synthesized under microwave irradiation. These compounds were also obtained with conventional heating procedures to compare them with those obtained with microwave and characterized by elemental analysis, IR, NMR, ESR spectral studies. Their purity was checked by thin layer chromatography. The fungi toxicities of the ligands and complexes have been investigated using antifungal disk diffusion susceptibility testing of yeasts of Candida species approved guideline (M44-A, NCCLS, USA). The fungi toxicity results indicate that the strain of Candida species are susceptible towards complexes of benzothiazole and suggests that with the increase in concentration of copper palmitate complexes it may increase further.

KEYWORDS: 2-amino-6-chloro benzothiazole, 2-amino-6-methylbenzothiazole, copper (II) palmitate, antifungal activities, Disk Diffusion Method

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8. A Comparison Between the Current Stainless-Reusable Tenaculum and the Modified Disposable Tenaculum

    Tahereh Rouzitalab1, Sedighe Forouhari2*, Seyede Zahra Ghaemi3, Mohammad Ebrahim Parsanezhad4, Hasan Jolaie5, Elnaz Khayer6

     1Shahed Allameh-Amini High School, Shiraz, Iran

    2- Infertility Research Center, Community Based Psychiatric Care Research Center, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran

      3- Department of Midwifery, Estahban Branch, Islamic Azad University, Estahban, Iran.

    4- Infertility Research Center,  Reproductive Endocrinology and Infertility Division, Department of OB-GYN, School of Medicine Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran.

      5-Health Policy Research Center, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran

     6-Community Based Psychiatric Care Research Center, Student Research Committee, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran


Till 2015, all of the countries around the world specially developing countries should provide high quality reproductive health services for their population including gynecological surgeries, family planning programs and sexual health plans. Tenaculum is a medical device used for taking and holding body tissues during operation. In fact, This device is a kind of locking forceps which has been designed in a way that is put and locked in an intended place and fixes the tissue and helps to perform a surgery or other medical procedures. It also holds the tissue for manipulation. Current stainless-reusable tenaculum has some disadvantages which will disappear by using of modified disposable ones. This review article studies the role of these two types of tenaculum in procedures that fixation of the cervix is necessary. This is a review study of more than 20 articles and several text chapters. The articles were selected from the scholarly journals indexed in the accredited publications like PubMed, Elsevier, Scopus, DOAJ and Google scholar databases as well as Iranian journals of SID, Iranmedex and Magiran. The current stainless-reusable tenaculum has some disadvantages which are explained in this article. Therefore, authors of this article decided to design and produce modified disposable tenacula. This type of tenaculum is lighter and more flexible and has unique characteristics which reduce pain, bleeding and traumatizing of body tissues that are seen more common in use of stainless reusable tenacula.
Keywords: Stainless-Reusable Tenaculum, Modified Disposable Tenaculum, Cervix

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9.      Effect Of Incorporation Of Aluminium Waste In Concrete Matrix Using Different Mix Ratio And Water Cement Ratio


1Civil Engineering Department, Michael Okpara University of Agriculture, Umudike Umuahia, Abia State, Nigeria.

2Professor of Civil Engineering, University Of Nigeria, Nsukka


ABSTRACT: The research investigated the effect of incorporation of aluminum waste in concrete matrix using different mix ratio and water cement ratio. Aluminum waste which was obtained from Aluminum Extrusion Industry (ALEX) Inyishi in Ikeduru Local Government Area of Imo State, Nigeria was investigated. Concrete Cubes with different ingredient components, mix ratio and water cement ratio were used to cast cube samples. The cubes have a dimension of 150mm x 150mm x 150mm. The cube samples were tested for 7, 14 and 28days strength.  The total of 216 concrete cubes were cast. The result showed that the addition of 5% Aluminum waste to a standard 1:2:4:0.55 mix caused the compression strength of the concrete to rise from 26.07N/mm2   to 28.47N/mm2        .This result represents an increase of 9.21% in compressive strength. The initial and final setting time of the Ordinary Portland Cement (OPC) used is 53mins and 587mins respectively. The slump test of aluminum waste concrete at different water cement ratio using 1:2:4 mix ranges from 4-20mm while that of 1:3:6 mix ranges from 7-14mm.

KEYWORDS: Aluminum waste, compressive strength, Slump, Setting time, Curing.

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10. Application Of Scheffe’s Model In Optimization Of Compressive Strength Of  Lateritic Concrete


1Department Of Civil Engineering, Michael Okpara University Of Agriculture, Umudike, Umuahia , Nigeria

2Professor Of Civil Engineering, University   Of Nigeria,  Nsukka

ABSTRACT: In this research work, the use of Scheffe’s simplex theory for the optimization of the compressive strength of lateritic concrete was investigated. The objective of the study is to develop a model that can predict the mix ratio when the desired compressive strength is known or vice-versa. A total of sixty (60) concrete cubes were cast. For each of the twenty mix ratios, three cubes were cast and the average determined. The first thirty  cubes were used to determine the coefficients of the model while the other thirty cubes were used to validate the model (control test). The optimum compressive strength of concrete at 28 days curing was found to be 25.04N/mm2 and the corresponding mix ratio was 0.6:1:1.75:1.75 (water, cement, laterite, granite). The model was found to be adequate for prescribing concrete mix ratios, when the desired compressive strength is known and vice-versa.

Keywords: Compressive strength, Scheffe’s model, Lateritic concrete, Curing.

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11. Optical Absorption Study of Different Concentration of Nd3+ ion in Zinc Lithium Bismuth Borate Glass

Vishal Parihar1, Beena Bhatia1 and Sanjay Singh2

1Ceramic Laboratory, Department of Physics, Jai Narain Vyas University Jodhpur 342001(Raj.) India

2Department of Physics, Chintamani College Of Arts And Science Gondpipri (GU) 442702(MS.) India


ABSTRACT: A new family of three optical glasses of (60-x) B2O3-10Bi2O3-20Li2O-10ZnO-xNd2O3 with x =1, 1.5 and 2 were prepared by melt quenching technique. The amorphous nature of the prepared glass samples was confirmed by X-ray diffraction. The absorption spectra of three Nd3+ doped zinc lithium bismuth borate (ZLiBiB) glasses have been recorded at room temperature. Nine bands in the region 450-900 nm have been observed. Slater-Condon parameters Fk (k=2, 4 and 6), Lande’s parameter x4f and Racah parameters Ek (k=2, 4 and 6) have been computed. Using these parameters energies and intensities of these bands has been calculated. To study the nature of bonding in doped glasses nephelauxetic ratio (β') and bonding parameter (b1/2) have also been computed. The intensities of the f-f transitions in the absorption spectra have been analyzed by the application of the Judd-Ofelt theory. J-O parameters (Ωλ) have been computed. The spectroscopic quality factor related with the rigidity of the glass system is aso discussed.

Keywords: Nd3+: ZLiBiB glasses, Energy interaction parameters, optical properties, Judd-Ofelt analysis

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12. Synthesis and Antimicrobial Evaluation of novel Thiophene Derivatives


Department of Applied Science

Universal Instt. of Engg&Tech.,Lalru, Mohali, Punjab


ABSTRACT: Thiophene nucleus has been established as the potential entityinthe largely rising chemical world of heterocyclic compounds possessing promising pharmacological character. A series of tetrahydrobenzothiophene derivatives was synthesized with an purpose to buildup novel and potent antimicrobial agents of synthetic origin.Therequired startingmaterialethyl-2-amino-4,5,6,7-tetrahydro-1-benzothiophene-3-carboxylate (1) was synthesized via a multicomponent condensation between sulphur,cyclohexanone and ethylcyanoacetate adopting Gewald Reaction. The Compound 1 was changed into respective Schiff bases (KM1-KM4)by refluxing it with various aromatic aldehydes in dioxane for 15  hours. The Schiff bases were further processed into thfinal compounds i.e. thiazolidinone derivatives (KM1-KM4)by treating them with thioglycollicacidin presence of anhydrous ZnClin DMF and refluxing the reaction mixture for 4- 5 hours. Synthesized compounds were purified, characterized and evaluated for their antimicrobial activity. Most of the compounds exhibited moderate to significant activities.

Keyword: antibacterial activity, antifungal activity, Schiff base and thiazolidinone

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13. Coal Based Generation: A Solution to Nigeria Electricity Problem
       Essien A. U. and Igweonu E. I.

        Department of Electrical/Electronics Engineering Technology, Akanu Ibiam Federal Polytechnic Unwana,
        Afikpo – Ebonyi State, Nigeria ,Email:

       ABSTRACT : The problems of the Nigerian power sector are far from being over. Nigeria with an estimated coal  
      reserve of 2.734 billion tonnes spread across 22 locations of the country is still faced with problems of gross
      inadequate power generation even in the midst of several clean coal generation technology options. This paper x-rays
      these problems, placed side-by-side with the prospects of integrating coal based electricity generation in the Nigerian
      power sector. It also recommends four clean coal generation technology options to improve the Nigerian energy mix.
      Keywords: coal reserve, clean coal generation, electricity, power plant

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14. Traditional Medicinal Plants for Diabetes: A Review
1Devesh Kumar, 2Manish Kumar and 3Rajaesh K. Yadav

1Department of Botany, R.B.S. College, Agra (UP)-282 002 2Academy for Environment and Life Sciences, Agra 3Department of Environment Science, S S Jain Subodh PG College, Jaipur

ABSTRACT: In this review article, an attempt has been made to compile the reported hypoglycemic plants available in different scientific journals and may be useful to the health professionals, scientists and scholars working in the field of pharmacology and therapeutics to develop evidence based alternative medicine to cure different kinds of diabetes in man and animals. The ethnobotanical information reports that about 900 plants may possess anti-diabetic potential. Some important plants described in this review article and usages.
Keywords: Antidiabetic plants, Vijaysar, aloevera

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